by Elisabeth Colnard & Boglarka Zilla Gulyas
With the globalisation of the world, our food sometimes travels all around the planet to end up on our plates—we probably don’t need to explain why this is unsustainable. Decreasing the distance between the point of production and markets can not only reduce the carbon footprint of our food but also minimise spoilage and loss of quality during transport. Freshly picked fruits and vegetables are also often more flavoursome than those that come from long distances away, which are sometimes picked green and ripened artificially on the way.
Fortunately, consumers today are becoming more aware of the negative environmental impacts of transport and want to know where their food comes from. The term ‘locavore’ was coined at the beginning of the century to refer to people that aim to consume only local seasonal fruits and vegetables (usually from within 100 to 250 kilometers), partly for their better taste and partly to promote the sustainability of the food system. In France, like in several other countries, in most cities you will find locally grown fresh produce in small independent shops and at markets, where you can sometimes buy them directly from the producer—unfortunately, buying local processed vegetables is more complicated.
Food is processed to improve its shelf life (e.g. by freezing, canning, heat treatment or addition of preservatives), taste (e.g. addition of salt, sugar, acidity regulators) or texture (e.g. chopping, pre-cooking, blending), and to make it more practical to use—in today’s fast-paced world, people tend to spend less time in the kitchen and want products that are easier to store and quicker to cook. Processing vegetables near the point of production could allow people to eat more local even if they don’t have a lot of time to spend on food preparation. But how feasible is it? Would such products find a place in supermarkets and consumers’ kitchens?
We can divide food processing into two groups based on its target: that which is aimed directly at consumers (i.e. products go on the shelves of shops to be purchased and used by individuals and families) and that which targets mass catering (processed food is delivered to the kitchens of different catering establishments). We are going to use two examples of local vegetable processing initiatives in Burgundy, one from each of the above categories, to illustrate some of the opportunities for and challenges faced by such projects.
Food processing for consumers
The Félix Kir Agricultural High School in Plombière-lès-Dijon is giving courses on subjects related to the food industry and has a technological hall where students can learn about food-processing. This hall is used to process locally grown fruit and vegetables into a variety of products, including jams, juices and different types of soup (such as gazpacho, a cold Spanish soup made of raw vegetables), which are then sold in small shops in the area.
Despite the benefits they can provide in terms of education and decreased environmental footprint, there are a number of challenges faced by such local growing and processing systems. Firstly, the reliance on produce from a restricted geographical area means that, at least in temperate climates, production will vary with season and is particularly vulnerable to potential yield losses to pests, diseases or extreme climate events. Secondly, the involvement of several independent, small producers makes the logistics of operation more complicated than if it relied on a small number of large suppliers. Finally, in the case of Félix Kir High School (and potentially in other schools), there is no production during the summer holidays—just when it could be highest, at the peak of the growing season.
These factors present obstacles for small scale food processing initiatives to establish contracts with supermarkets. Since this is where most people get their supply of processed vegetables from, it is difficult for locally grown and processed food to reach consumers. The question is, are people ready to change their habits and go the extra mile to buy locally processed food? And are they willing to accept the reduced choice that necessarily comes with local food.
Food processing for mass catering
The new French food law ‘EGalim’ (from Etat Généraux de l’Alimentation, the country’s food and drink industry summit conference) was enacted by the government in 2018, with the following main objectives: to pay a fairer price to producers, improve the sanitary and nutritional quality of products and promote the sustainability of the food system. Among other things, the law requires the food services of state institutions (e.g. school canteens) to source 50% of their ingredients from local, organic or quality labelled products by 1st January 2022. Currently, because they can’t afford to prepare fresh produce themselves, these catering services use mainly globally sourced, ready-to-cook frozen vegetables. As a result of the EGalim law, new projects are starting that aim to facilitate the transition to using more local ingredients. For example, ‘légumeries’ are being created, which are places where vegetables are cleaned, peeled and chopped before they are sent to the kitchens of public catering establishments, helping them meet the required 50% and improving access to local, fresh vegetables for people they cater for. The establishment of légumeries can also create employment and play a role in reintegration. A good example of this kind of initiative is the légumerie project of the city of Dijon, which aims to process 10 tonnes of vegetables per day to supply 7 to 10 local kitchens.
The main problem with such projects, as Christophe Bonnot, the project leader of Dijon’s légumerie explains, is that mass catering menus do not take the seasonality of vegetables into account, which would be essential when relying in large part on local produce. Therefore, there must be a discussion between local food processors and caterers, whose menus need to be changed or made more flexible to accommodate for the variation in supplies. Another issue, already mentioned in the previous section, is the lack of logistics to deal with multiple small farmers. However, with the right effort from all parties involved, it will be possible to restructure the sector. Regulatory changes obliging caterers to use local products can play a crucial role in this by prompting the creation of the logistics and infrastructure necessary.
While there is clearly an increasing interest in sustainable, local food in the West from both the public and authorities, an important question arises: what can we call local? Is it the food that comes from the city you live in? Perhaps a few kilometers from your home? Or from anywhere within the country? Without a clear definition and an appropriate labelling system, not only is it difficult for consumers to make an informed decision about their food choices, but the success of regulatory efforts like EGalim will also be limited. In order for local vegetable processing to develop into a viable part of the food sector, it is essential to identify the obstacles that stand in the way and address issues like the ones outlined in this article. We believe that together we could make a difference and decrease the environmental footprint of our food, support small farmers and make fresh, local produce more accessible to all.